Apparently, although Pa Chai had instructed his people not to attack the Lao, they did, and this caused him to lose his supposed mandate, which caused the Hmong to begin losing, and in due course, in , he was killed, ending the "War of the Insane", as it was known to the French. As Shong Lue was the next "Chao Fa," this alleged militant intention constantly hung over Shong Lue's head, which contributed to the acceleration of Shong Lue's defamation, mystery, and assassination.
Pa Chai's script has reasonable success, with villagers reporting that they had seen Pa Chai's script, encoded laws, and writing methods during the French colonial rule.
It may have been in use before independence, but its use since has waned. Hmong people living in Vietnam may be using a form of this inadvertently in writing Hmong based on Vietnamese. This alphabet, published in by missionary Homera Homer-Dixon for the Hmong Leng , was never particularly popular, but was similar to Savina's romanization in many respects. This was a Romanized style of writing Hmongic languages in Vietnam. This Vietnamese RPA script is only known to a few in Vietnam, predominantly of Christian faith, and it is thought that it will not be in use for much longer.
This refers to the set of Hmong scripts that are based on the Lao alphabet , primarily used for transcribing the Green and White varieties of Hmong.
Two versions are thought to have been initially developed. After a meeting held by General Vang Pao at Long Tieng in , a revised version was developed by Christian missionaries.
It was used extensively in Laos before the communist takeover; however, its influence and use has waned. Apparently, people who are literate in Lao will not find too much trouble in reading and writing the script. It is known that there was a distinct Hmong Lao script supported by the Kingdom of Laos , and one supported by the Pathet Lao communists. The connection between the Pathet Lao-supported script and the script designed by Lor Fong, is not very clear, however.
Since Fai Dang Lor is a known communist supporter, and since Vang Pao is a known supporter of the Royal Lao government, the selection and revision of the Hmong Lao script described in the previous paragraph is unclear in allegiance. If the Lor Fong script is indeed the Pathet Lao-supported script, there may only be one or two scripts that were created. If the Lor Fong script is the royalist-accepted script, then there may have been up to three Hmong Lao scripts created. Yet, as the Pathet Lao has been accused of widespread genocide of the Hmong people in coordination with the North Vietnamese armies, the Hmong Lao script remains widely unaccepted.
Nonetheless, the contemporary system of transcribing Hmong in Lao may inadvertently still use a form of this script. This represents two scripts designed by Doris Whitelock, a missionary in the area during the s and s. She first developed a Thai-based system for writing Hmong in the s. However, the Thai system was never widely used, even though Hmong people may be unconsciously be using a similar system in Thailand today.
In the s she developed a Lao-based system; however, this became the subject of widespread criticism, as it was considered a "Lao counterfeit," and so was not adopted by the Hmong people of Laos. This system was published in by a Vietnamese missionary, C. The system reportedly never gained much of a following. In , in Sichuan , a French officer named d'Ollone is said to have discovered some members of the Miao people reading and writing using Chinese characters, but they were allegedly very secretive about this script's existence and many members of the community vehemently denied it.
A vast majority of experimental scripts are based in the United States of America , specifically in the Midwest , where there is a relatively large population of Hmong refugees, primarily from Laos and Vietnam.
He allegedly developed the script in the s while still in Laos. His script is distinct in that he uses left radicals, as in Chinese, to indicate the meaning of the words, with right radicals, or syllables, to indicate the pronunciation. In this way, it represents a fusion of Chinese and Pallava-based alphasyllabaries. It is not known if anyone else could read the script. It is based on Pallava script , from which a vast majority of scripts in Southeast Asia descend.
He reportedly intended to represent what Hmong 'would have looked like' had Hmong followed the same evolutionary descent from Pallava. This script was developed by Tchuyi Vang in St. Paul, Minnesota in the s. It allegedly includes influences of the Chinese language. This script has appeared over the Internet as the "Ancient Hmong Written Language" and is allegedly the reading guide to the Pa Ntau flower cloths referenced historically.
It is, however, only being promoted in America,  and based on Internet testimony, there seems to be Hmong schools in the United States who teach it in official settings, and Hmong female adults who teach it to their kids.
This script supposedly contains consonants and vowels in the form of clan names, but this script has not properly been attributed in languages other than RPA Hmong, so international information is scarce. This script, however, is established enough to have a keyboard. Use of the keyboard is unknown. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Languages of China illustrated, reprint ed. Retrieved 24 April Retrieved April 7, This excellent script has been used by members of the United Christians Liberty Evangelical church in America for more than 25 years, in printed material and videos.
Retrieved from " https: CS1 foreign language sources ISO Each worksheet contains four parts. The first part is translation and identifying correction translation. The second part contains creating sentences from using words from the text content. The third part contains creating new words without using words from the text content.
The fourth contain reading comprehension, where students read a small text and answer questions. Later on the worksheet will also contain a writing section as well.
After every parts, there will be a test. The test contains a dictation of words and sentences, identifying correct translation of words, reading comprehension, and a writing portion. Recording for the dictation portion of the test will be at the end of the lesson before the test. Every lesson comes with an audio recording for the purpose of correct pronunciations of the letters and words.
Hmong college students, I want really to stress on how important it is to know how to read and write in Hmong. Many of us know that 90 percents of our Hmong doctorate graduates came back to work for the Hmong community, whether they establish their own business or working with other institutions. A lot of our college graduates also came back to work and get involve with the community. Yet, we cannot even communicate correctly with our Hmong elders because our Hmong is so bad.
I decided to teach and offer this course for the purpose of helping our Hmong youth to gain back Hmong literacy and be able to communicate well with our elders. But of course, this view is not in the perspective of many of our Hmong college students. Please, take the time now and learn little by little. An educated person must knows itself and its people before they can fully help others.
Hmong writing refers to the various writing systems that have been used for transcribing various Hmongic languages, spoken by Hmong people in China, Vietnam, Laos, the United States, and Thailand, these being the top five countries.
Hmong is a Hmong-Mien language spoken by about million people in China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, USA, and French Guiana. There are two major varieties of Hmong: White Hmong (Hmoob Dawb) and Green/Blue Hmong (Moob Leeg/Hmoob Ntsuab), which are named after the traditional colours worn by women of the different groups.
Therefore, the folktale states that the Hmong language was exclusively oral from that point onwards. Natalie Jill Smith, author of "Ethnicity, Reciprocity, Hmong Writing Systems in Vietnam: A Case Study of Vietnam's Minority Language Policy. Stockholm, Sweden: Center for Pacific Asian Studies, RPA Writing Structure The Romanized Popular Alphabet (RPA) or Hmong RPA (also Roman Popular Alphabet), is a system of romanization for the various dialects of the Hmong language. Created in Laos between and by a group of missionaries and Hmong advisers, it has gone on to become the most widespread system for .
The Hmong reading and writing is designed for Hmong high school students, college students, non Hmong, and any one who wish to learn to read and write in Hmong using the Romanized Popular Alphabet system. The course will focus on reading, writing, and pronunciation of letters and words in Hmong. Hmong writing topic. Hmong writing refers to the various writing systems that have been used for transcribing various Hmongic languages, spoken by Hmong people in China, Vietnam, Laos, the United States, and Thailand, these being the top five countries.