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If managers encourage team members to increasingly use their preferred modes of intelligences, the effort and creativity that are likely to follow could lead to enhanced team productivity Green et al. Therefore, the challenge for most managers will be to find ways to maximize the human potential that each individual brings to the eam Green et al. Implicit in both MIM and Theory Y is the belief that workers should have the freedom to contribute their knowledge and intelligences to the overall benefit of the organization, and not just perform work in a mindless, mechanical way.

Managers should value the knowledge and intelligences of employees, which eventually leads to the generation of diverse ideas on how to improve work to be performed, which leads to greater productivity. The use of multiple intelligences, including linguistic brainstorming, debates, scenarios, etc. This forms the foundation for a knowledge-based organization, and will thrive in a Theory Y organizational setting. Thinkers, who are free to explore their ideas, will be challenged in a Theory X setting, while thinkers are restricted from communicating and exploring their ideas, will be challenged in a Theory Y setting.

Each stage involves a crisis of two opposing emotional forces businessball. In Stage 3, initiative is the capacity to devise actions or projects, and a confidence and belief that it is okay to do so, even with a risk of failure businessballs.

In Stage 4, industry refers to purposeful or meaningful activity businessballs. However, if the key source of value in the 21st century organization is to be derived from the workforce itself, an inversion of the dominant approach will be needed Kochan, et al. We will need to look at organizations from the perspective of where value is created — people and the work itself Kochan, et al, Such an inversion will lead to a transformation in the management and organization of work, workers, and knowledge Kochan, et al.

Accomplishing this inversion is among the most important challenges facing organization and management theory, research, teaching, and practice today Kochan, et al. With the knowledge gained from human development theories, how can organizations move to toward a human capital and knowledge-based model of organizing? The following is a framework for managing people in a knowledge-based organization: Labor Costs or Human Assets?

Conventional economic and organization theory views labor as a cost to be controlled Kochan, et al. Moreover, since labor cannot be separated from its human motivation and free will, incentives are needed to ensure employees will commit their full energies and skills to the goals of the organization Kochan, et al. Labor also brings its own interests and sources of power to the organization Kochan, et al.

Therefore, efforts on the part of mployees to use their collective power by forming unions or other organizations to represent their own interests need to be discouraged or defeated Kochan, et al. A human capital, knowledge-based perspective understands workers as human assets who create the value of the organization Kochan, et al. By joining and staying in the organization, employees invest and put at risk some of their human capital Kochan, et al.

By taking advantage of opportunities for continued learning and development, their human capital is deepened and expanded Kochan, et al. Since employees have interests and obligations outside of work — to their professions, families, communities, and themselves — they cannot and do not wish to commit their full energies to the organization Kochan, et al.

Therefore, efforts are needed to integrate work and personal aspects of life Kochan, et al. Employees also bring a variety of expectations to their jobs, including an interest in having meaningful influence and voice in matters that are important to them Kochan, et al.

At the same time, employers can reasonably expect employees and their representative organizations to contribute o the continued viability and effectiveness of the enterprise Kochan, et al.

Therefore, efforts are needed to engage employees individually and collectively in ways that simultaneously address organizational and individual interests and expectations Kochan, et al. Industrial or Knowledge-Based Systems? The early years of the 20th century witnessed the gradual movement from agrarian and craft to an industrial model of work organization Kochan, et al. The latter part of the century has witnessed efforts to continue the transformation from the industrial to a knowledge- ased system of work organization Kochan, et al.

That transformation process continues today Kochan, et al. The industrial model created sharp legal and status distinctions between managers who conceived and directed how work was done and non-managers who executed their tasks as directed Kochan, et al. Productivity was maximized by organizing tasks into well-defined jobs and functions Kochan, et al. Efficiency gains were achieved through increased specialization and formalization of reporting relationships, romotion paths, and compensation rules Kochan, et al.

The transformation in work systems underway today involves efforts to shift from industrial to knowledge-based work systems that blur the lines between managerial and non-managerial work Kochan, et al. These systems assume that in a knowledge-based economy, high levels of performance can only be achieved by organizing work in ways that allow workers to utilize and deepen their knowledge and skills, while working collaboratively on multiple, temporary projects to accomplish flexible and innovative operations Kochan, et al.

As a result, there is an emphasis on horizontal interrelationships among diverse groups both internal and external , and the coordinated use of teams, cross-functional task forces, and cross-organizational alliances and networks Kochan, et al. A Mechanistic or Integrative Perspective? Technology is conventionally viewed as a physical asset — a piece of machinery or an information system — that is initially developed and designed by technical experts and then implemented for use by the workforce Kochan, et al.

This view emphasizes the echanistic dimensions of the technology, while disregarding or attempting to eliminate the human side Kochan, et al. For example, a major function of technology in this view is to reduce reliance on human inputs — both the quantity of labor and the variance error that can result from human judgment, fatigue, lack of motivation, or direct challenges or conflicts with management decisions or actions Kochan, et al.

Even today, the dominant assumption in much of the machine tool industry, for example, involves designing people out of the process — even at the expense of flexibility and innovation Kochan, et al.

This relational view of technology recognizes that technological outcomes are highly contingent and emergent — depending on how the technical capabilities interact with human hoices, political actions, cultural norms, and learning opportunities over time Kochan, et al.

In this view, benefits from technologies can only be realized when the technical and social dimensions are integrated through the design, implementation, and ongoing adaptation of the technologies employed in an organization Kochan, et al. Leadership is conventionally viewed as being vested primarily in the role of the CEO and other top executives Kochan, et al.

The CEO is to provide vision and broad strategic irection to the rest of the organization and in doing so shape the culture and values of the enterprise Kochan, et al. The search process for CEOs therefore focuses on identifying individuals in top positions in apparently successful organizations who appear to have these personal attributes Kochan, et al.

A human capital, knowledge-based view of the enterprise envisions leadership as a distributed capability that involves multiple people and groups at all levels of the organization Kochan, et al. To be sure, the CEO and other executives are critical players in leading a process which generates a clear and compelling shared vision for the organization Kochan, et al. However, such action by senior executives is not sufficient unless and until it engages the aspirations and energies of all organizational participants Kochan, et al.

Leadership is hus more than a set of individual traits or abilities; it is a set of capabilities that extends throughout the organization and over time Kochan, et al.

Performance in the 21st century organization is a function of the quality of leadership capabilities in action throughout the organization Kochan, et al.

Value for Shareholders or Multiple Stakeholders? This brings us to a fundamental question: What purpose s do organizations serve Kochan, et al. With the rise to prominence of the modern corporation, the answer that dominated American organizations and management education throughout most of the 20th century was that business organizations exist to maximize shareholder value Kochan, et al.

This reflects a recognition of the role played by owners who provide and put at risk the critical resource — significant pools of financial capital — needed to build large corporations Kochan, et al. As a result, the governance structure and processes are seen to be the xclusive domain of the financial owners and their direct agents, the CEO and other top executives Kochan, et al.

The older the adolescent they are more capable of inductive and deductive reasoning. From these theories Piaget concluded that you need cognitive thinking to develop not Freuds motive force. He was interested in the development of motives and needs, which he divided into two subsets, deficiency motives and being motives.

Deficiency motives involve drives to maintain physical or emotional homeostasis, such as the drive to get enough to eat and drink, the sexual drive to obtain sufficient love or respect from others, Bee pg. Maslow also believing humans to be independent and fundamentally motivated. To achieve maximum potential to grow and develop. Maslow , a,b, , used the term self-actualization to describe this ultimate goal in life, Bee pg. Maslow extended his study to a population of college students.

Selecting students who would fit his definition of self-actualizers, these students showed no signs of maladjustment and were making effective use of their talents.

The differences between psychoanalytical, cognitive thinking and humanistic behaviour are describing humans as individuals of a collection of hidden impulses that need to be expressed. Cognitive theorists see the human as a thinker, organizing and adapting experiences so they make sense. The Humanist theorist focus on what the person may become rather than where they are at the present time.

From the theories discussed in this paper, it is clear that how complex human development is. No one theory successfully describes human growth and development in all of it complexity. Essay UK - http: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

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Medicine essays Miscellaneous essays Psychology essays Religious studies essays Science essays Sociology essays Essays menu. Freud also believed that many emotions were caused by unconcious sexual desires, some of which originated in infancy Eriksons theory was that development resulted from the interaction between inner instincts and outer cultural and social demands:


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Human development theories are models intended to account for how and why people become, as they are (Thomas ). Theories provide the framework to clarify and organize existing observations and to try to explain and predict human behaviour (Schroeder, )/5(16).

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Human Development Theories In addition to Freud’s psychodynamic theory there are four other human development philosophies; biological, cognitive, behavioral and systems model. Even though these theories differ they all contain the same basic assumptions.

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This essay will discuss some of the theories used to explain human growth and development and discuss the pros and cons of each theory in relation to different life stages and show how each theory can be applied to social work practice. Human development theories Essay Sample. Over the years, there have been dozens of psychologists who have proposed hundreds of different theories regarding human development. These theories are read by educational professionals, who incorporate the parts of the theories that they believe in, into their own personal philosophy.

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Human development theories. Human Development Theories. INTRODUCTION. Human development theories are models intended to account for how and why people become, as they are (Thomas ). Theories provide the framework to clarify and organize existing observations and to try to explain and predict human behaviour (Schroeder, . Theories of Development Essay - Theories of Development There are many branches of psychology. The field of human development is divided into five theory groups. The theory groups are Psychodynamic, Cognitive, Systems, Biological and Behavioral. Each theory group has many contributing theorists.