The big population of India undoubtedly provides large work-force resources which, if properly utilized, can highly advance the economic prosperity of the country. However, a large number of people are poor and illiterate. Their basic need are not being met. Under the existing condition of our economy, it cannot be said that the vast masses of people growing out of proportion to our resources are really an asset to the country. We have to give more attention to the growth of population and its relation to the problem of unemployment and capital formation in the country.
Efforts are being made in India for improving the economic condition of people but it can bear no fruitful result if population is allowed to growl unchecked. William Godwin criticized Malthus's criticisms of his own arguments in his book On Population Mill considered the criticisms of Malthus made thus far to have been superficial. Carey maintained that the only situation in which the means of subsistence will determine population growth is one in which a given society is not introducing new technologies or not adopting forward-thinking governmental policy, and that population regulated itself in every well-governed society, but its pressure on subsistence characterized the lower stages of civilization.
Another strand of opposition to Malthus's ideas started in the middle of the 19th century with the writings of Friedrich Engels Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy , and Karl Marx Capital , Engels and Marx argued that what Malthus saw as the problem of the pressure of population on the means of production actually represented the pressure of the means of production on population.
They thus viewed it in terms of their concept of the reserve army of labour. In other words, the seeming excess of population that Malthus attributed to the seemingly innate disposition of the poor to reproduce beyond their means actually emerged as a product of the very dynamic of capitalist economy.
Engels called Malthus's hypothesis "the crudest, most barbarous theory that ever existed, a system of despair which struck down all those beautiful phrases about love thy neighbour and world citizenship". In the Marxist tradition, Lenin sharply criticized Malthusian theory and its neo-Malthusian version,  calling it a "reactionary doctrine" and "an attempt on the part of bourgeois ideologists to exonerate capitalism and to prove the inevitability of privation and misery for the working class under any social system".
In England, where Malthus lived, population was rapidly increasing but suitable agricultural land was limited. Russia, on the other hand, had extensive land with agricultural potential yet a relatively sparse population. In the 20th century, those who regarded Malthus as a failed prophet of doom included an editor of Nature , John Maddox.
Economist Julian Lincoln Simon has criticised Malthus's conclusions. Many factors have been identified as having contributed: Each played a role. From the opposite angle, Romanian American economist Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen , a progenitor in economics and a paradigm founder of ecological economics , has argued that Malthus was too optimistic, as he failed to recognize any upper limit to the growth of population — only, the geometric increase in human numbers is occasionally slowed down checked by the arithmetic increase in agricultural produce, according to Malthus' simple growth model; but some upper limit to population is bound to exist, as the total amount of agricultural land — actual as well as potential — on Earth is finite, Georgescu-Roegen points out.
Machinery , chemical fertilisers and pesticides all rely on mineral resources for their operation, rendering modern agriculture — and the industrialised food processing and distribution systems associated with it — almost as dependent on Earth's mineral stock as the industrial sector has always been.
Georgescu-Roegen cautions that this situation is a major reason why the carrying capacity of Earth — that is, Earth's capacity to sustain human populations and consumption levels — is bound to decrease sometime in the future as Earth's finite stock of mineral resources is presently being extracted and put to use.
Anthropologist Eric Ross depicts Malthus's work as a rationalization of the social inequities produced by the Industrial Revolution , anti-immigration movements, the eugenics movement [ clarification needed ] and the various international development movements. Despite use of the term "Malthusian catastrophe" by detractors such as economist Julian Simon — , Malthus himself did not write that mankind faced an inevitable future catastrophe.
Rather, he offered an evolutionary social theory of population dynamics as it had acted steadily throughout all previous history. Malthusian social theory influenced Herbert Spencer 's idea of the survival of the fittest ,  and the modern ecological-evolutionary social theory of Gerhard Lenski and Marvin Harris.
Huxley openly criticised communist and Roman Catholic attitudes to birth control , population control and overpopulation. Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace each read and acknowledged the role played by Malthus in the development of their own ideas. Darwin referred to Malthus as "that great philosopher",  and said: I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population The result of this would be the formation of new species.
It was the first great work I had yet read treating of any of the problems of philosophical biology, and its main principles remained with me as a permanent possession, and twenty years later gave me the long-sought clue to the effective agent in the evolution of organic species. Ronald Fisher commented sceptically on Malthusianism as a basis for a theory of natural selection.
John Maynard Smith doubted that famine functioned as the great leveller, as portrayed by Malthus, but he also accepted the basic premises:. Malthusian ideas continue to have considerable influence.
Ehrlich has written several books predicting famine as a result of population increase: The Population Bomb ; Population, resources, environment: In the late s Ehrlich predicted that hundreds of millions would die from a coming overpopulation-crisis in the s. Other examples of work that has been accused of "Malthusianism" include the book The Limits to Growth published by the Club of Rome and the Global report to the then President of the United States Jimmy Carter.
Science-fiction author Isaac Asimov issued many appeals for population-control reflecting the perspective articulated by people from Robert Malthus through Paul R. Ecological economist Herman Daly has recognized the influence of Malthus on his own work on steady-state economics.
More recently [update] , a school of "neo-Malthusian" scholars has begun to link population and economics to a third variable, political change and political violence, and to show how the variables interact. In the early s, Jack Goldstone linked population variables to the English Revolution of — [ citation needed ] and David Lempert devised a model of demographics, economics, and political change in the multi-ethnic country of Mauritius.
Goldstone has since modeled other revolutions by looking at demographics and economics [ citation needed ] and Lempert has explained Stalin 's purges and the Russian Revolution of in terms of demographic factors that drive political economy. These approaches suggest that political ideology follows demographic forces. Malthus, sometimes regarded as the founding father of modern demography,  continues to inspire and influence futuristic visions, such as those of K.
Eric Drexler relating to space advocacy and molecular nanotechnology. As Drexler put it in Engines of Creation Nevertheless, Malthus was essentially right. The Malthusian growth model now bears Malthus's name. Verhulst developed the logistic growth model favored by so many critics of the Malthusian growth model in only after reading Malthus's essay.
Malthus has also inspired retired physics professor, Albert Allen Bartlett , to lecture over 1, times on "Arithmetic, Population, and Energy", promoting sustainable living and explaining the mathematics of overpopulation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An Essay on the Principle of Population Title page of the original edition of An Essay on the Principle of Population.
Chapter VII, p 44 . Chapter 2, p 8 . Chapter IX, p 72 . Modern synthesis 20th century. The autobiography of Charles Darwin. Condorcet and Other Writers 1 ed. Johnson in St Paul's Church-yard. Retrieved 20 June Oxford World's Classics reprint. Unintended consequences play a major role in economic thought; see the invisible hand and the tragedy of the commons. Johns Hopkins University Press. Marx and Engels on Malthus.
Society and Its Environment: University of California Press. University of Michigan Press. Johnson, , p. Oxford World's Classics reprint: The Social Contract Press. Malthus past and present. Introduction to Malthus, Essay on the Principle of Population. Malthus's Essay on That Subject. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown. For an annotated extract, see: Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 14 June The University of Chicago Press.
The ultimate resource ; and The ultimate resource II. Archived from the original PDF contains only the title and contents pages of the book on 18 October Steady-state economics 2nd ed. Zed Books, London, Principles of Biology , vol. On the origin of species by means of natural selection. The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical focus. University of Chicago Press. Malthusianism is not a proper starting point for the theory of natural selection for reasons made abundantly clear by Fisher , pp.
Now that is becoming a more serious issue people are slowly gaining awareness thanks to media such as news coverage Ehrlich Malnutrition is a problem in all parts of the world. Each year million humans in underdeveloped countries die of starvation or illnesses related to it.
Lack of nutrition can cause sicknesses such as anemia, rickets, pellagra as well. Poor immunity is also an outcome that puts people in danger of catching things like influenza, tetanus, measles, and tuberculosis Stefoff Many different circumstances and situation account for the rise and fall of population numbers. Along with rapid population growth come dangerous environmental problems.
Population growth has contributed to every threat to our ecosystem. Overpopulation is the root of environmental deteriorations such as: Human actives, including respiration, release these gases causing the Earth to heat slowly Stefoff Forests are being cut down quicker than they can reproduce themselves due to human need for more space.
Deforestation presents other problems, such as the death of species. Edward Wilson, a biologist, believes that each year 10,, species of plants, bird, insects, reptiles, and mammals become instinct Stefoff Pollution increase is an obvious environment problem that will increase drastically due to overpopulation.
Although not mentioned very often, crime is one more negative effect that overpopulation would have on the world as far as social troubles are concerned. Now that I have discussed some of the causes of overpopulation, and the negative effects I would like to propose a few possibilities, that I have found throughout my research, to stop, or at least balance out the growing population size. Reducing birth rates by utilizing different strategies is the most prominent of these ideas.
Increasing the legal marital age would postpone child bearing Mitchell. One well-known method is called family planning. This method works by making birth control pills easily accessible, providing places for termination of pregnancies to occur, and helping people become more knowledgeable about abortions and contraception Commoner. Laws could be passed making birth control mandintory, similar to the laws in China. According to Chinese law families would be faced with penalties if they had more than one offspring Stefoff Other nations enforce even stricter laws.
Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “The Problem of Pollution in Our Cities” Complete Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes. Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “Our Wild Life Heritage” Complete Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.
Essay on Population Growth: Its effects and solution Category: Blog On February 13, By Gyan Introduction: The rising population of India is .
Our population essay Migina 23/01/ Absolute impossibility, and solutions shows that a right now your thomas malthus, thesis or . China is the largest country in the world with a population of 1, ,, people and ranked the third largest in size in the world. In the year the population of China will be about 1,,, The population in china is growing by about 87% a year. China is controlling the population by the one-child policy.
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