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Pure and applied research

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These studies may be qualitative or quantitative, and can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory. Artistic research , also seen as 'practice-based research', can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself.

It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth. Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied:.

A common misconception is that a hypothesis will be proven see, rather, null hypothesis. Generally, a hypothesis is used to make predictions that can be tested by observing the outcome of an experiment. If the outcome is inconsistent with the hypothesis, then the hypothesis is rejected see falsifiability. However, if the outcome is consistent with the hypothesis, the experiment is said to support the hypothesis. This careful language is used because researchers recognize that alternative hypotheses may also be consistent with the observations.

In this sense, a hypothesis can never be proven, but rather only supported by surviving rounds of scientific testing and, eventually, becoming widely thought of as true. A useful hypothesis allows prediction and within the accuracy of observation of the time, the prediction will be verified. As the accuracy of observation improves with time, the hypothesis may no longer provide an accurate prediction.

In this case, a new hypothesis will arise to challenge the old, and to the extent that the new hypothesis makes more accurate predictions than the old, the new will supplant it. Researchers can also use a null hypothesis, which states no relationship or difference between the independent or dependent variables.

The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use historical sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. There are various history guidelines that are commonly used by historians in their work, under the headings of external criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis.

This includes lower criticism and sensual criticism. Though items may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following concepts are part of most formal historical research: The controversial trend of artistic teaching becoming more academics-oriented is leading to artistic research being accepted as the primary mode of enquiry in art as in the case of other disciplines.

As such, it is similar to the social sciences in using qualitative research and intersubjectivity as tools to apply measurement and critical analysis. It is based on artistic practices, methods, and criticality. Through presented documentation, the insights gained shall be placed in a context. According to artist Hakan Topal , in artistic research, "perhaps more so than other disciplines, intuition is utilized as a method to identify a wide range of new and unexpected productive modalities".

This may be factual, historical, or background research. Background research could include, for example, geographical or procedural research. The Society for Artistic Research SAR publishes the triannual Journal for Artistic Research JAR , [22] [23] an international, online, open access , and peer-reviewed journal for the identification, publication, and dissemination of artistic research and its methodologies, from all arts disciplines and it runs the Research Catalogue RC , [24] [25] [26] a searchable, documentary database of artistic research, to which anyone can contribute.

Patricia Leavy addresses eight arts-based research ABR genres: Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research. The major steps in conducting research are: The steps generally represent the overall process; however, they should be viewed as an ever-changing iterative process rather than a fixed set of steps.

Often, a literature review is conducted in a given subject area before a research question is identified. A gap in the current literature, as identified by a researcher, then engenders a research question. The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis.

The hypothesis is the supposition to be tested. The researcher s collects data to test the hypothesis. The researcher s then analyzes and interprets the data via a variety of statistical methods, engaging in what is known as empirical research. The results of the data analysis in rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis are then reported and evaluated.

At the end, the researcher may discuss avenues for further research. However, some researchers advocate for the reverse approach: The reverse approach is justified by the transactional nature of the research endeavor where research inquiry, research questions, research method, relevant research literature, and so on are not fully known until the findings have fully emerged and been interpreted.

Rudolph Rummel says, " It is only when a range of tests are consistent over many kinds of data, researchers, and methods can one have confidence in the results. Plato in Meno talks about an inherent difficulty, if not a paradox, of doing research that can be paraphrased in the following way, "If you know what you're searching for, why do you search for it?!

The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure:. There are two major types of empirical research design: Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer:.

Social media posts are used for qualitative research. The quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. If the research question is about people, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments this is the only way that a quantitative study can be considered a true experiment.

If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants. In either qualitative or quantitative research, the researcher s may collect primary or secondary data. Primary data is data collected specifically for the research, such as through interviews or questionnaires. Secondary data is data that already exists, such as census data, which can be re-used for the research.

It is good ethical research practice to use secondary data wherever possible. For example, a researcher may choose to conduct a qualitative study and follow it up with a quantitative study to gain additional insights. Big data has brought big impacts on research methods so that now many researchers do not put much effort into data collection; furthermore, methods to analyze easily available huge amounts of data have also been developed.

Non-empirical theoretical research is an approach that involves the development of theory as opposed to using observation and experimentation. As such, non-empirical research seeks solutions to problems using existing knowledge as its source. This, however, does not mean that new ideas and innovations cannot be found within the pool of existing and established knowledge. Non-empirical research is not an absolute alternative to empirical research because they may be used together to strengthen a research approach.

Neither one is less effective than the other since they have their particular purpose in science. Typically empirical research produces observations that need to be explained; then theoretical research tries to explain them, and in so doing generates empirically testable hypotheses; these hypotheses are then tested empirically, giving more observations that may need further explanation; and so on.

A simple example of a non-empirical task is the prototyping of a new drug using a differentiated application of existing knowledge; another is the development of a business process in the form of a flow chart and texts where all the ingredients are from established knowledge.

Much of cosmological research is theoretical in nature. Mathematics research does not rely on externally available data; rather, it seeks to prove theorems about mathematical objects. Research ethics involves the application of fundamental ethical principles to a variety of topics involving research, including scientific research. These principles include deontology , consequentialism , virtue ethics and value ethics.

Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation , such as: Research ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research. Research is work that involves studying something and trying to discover facts about it. You say that someone does , conducts , or carries out research. You can refer to the research that someone is doing as their research or their researches.

You normally only use researches after a possessive form such as my , his , or Gordon's. Pure research - definition of Pure research by The Free Dictionary https: Related to Pure research: Basic Research , Applied research. Careful study of a given subject, field, or problem, undertaken to discover facts or principles. An act or period of such study: To study something thoroughly so as to present in a detailed, accurate manner: To do research for: All effort directed toward increased knowledge of natural phenomena and environment and toward the solution of problems in all fields of science.

International Journal of Health Services. Social science and medicine: The elusive grail of epidemiology". Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy. Between and beyond 'histories of science' and 'histories of medicine'—introduction". Medicine seeks to be 'scientific ' ". Thomas Marshall Apr A new clinical epistemology?

Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. A Zalewski Mar Kevork Hopayian May Restating the hypotheticodeductive model—part two". British Journal of General Practice. Methodological errors in classical science". Ronald A Arky Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association. Implications for analysing cause-of-death data". Emerging Themes in Epidemiology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences.

Michael Kundi July Andrew C Ward Bradford Hill's 'aspects of association ' ". Gary Taubes Mar Georg W Kreutzberg May

What Is the Difference Between Pure and Applied Science?

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Pure research generally does not produce marketable results, but may be used for later research into more specific and profitable applications. Also called fundamental research. Also called fundamental research.

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Related to Pure research: Basic Research, Applied research research the systematic, rigorous investigation of a situation or problem in order to generate new knowledge or validate existing knowledge.

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Basic research may be defined as: Basic research has been described as arising out of curiosity. Basic research is contrasted with applied research, which is research focused on a particular problem or application. Pure research is a scale game which might seem to put smaller countries at a disadvantage; however the good news is that collaboration is getting easier and the ability to gain scale in a defined area of research is levelling the playing field.

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Pure research is driven by interest or curiosity in the relationships between two or more variables. When an individual is interested in learning simply for learning's sake, she is conducting pure research. Would you like to know how to translate Pure research to other languages? This page provides all possible translations of the word Pure research in almost any language. Find a translation for the Pure research definition in other languages: Select another language: Discuss these Pure.