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Referencing and bibliographies

Ways to Incorporate References in an Essay

❶Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known.

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Advantages of Specifying References When Writing an Essay
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You can use references by summarizing, paraphrasing or quoting your sources, providing an in-text citation and listing the sources on your reference page. Specific guidelines outline the use of references in an essay, and most essays are written following APA, MLA or Chicago Style, depending on your subject and essay instructions.

It is important to know which style format is required as this affects the way in which you will create in-text citations and reference page entries. Either way, you will be including enough information via your references, so that the reader can find your original source to validate your claim or conduct further research. As you gather references, it is important to use reliable sources that directly back up your main point.

For example, if you were writing a research paper on the benefits of school uniforms, you might look for statistics that discus how uniforms affect crime and peer pressure in schools. You might also search for professionals who have strong opinions on the matter and quote them in your paper. As you gather your references, keep detailed notes on the sources so that you can get back to them if you need to.

Once you have adequate summaries of your research and quotes from professionals, you can begin to use them in your essay. Place research in the paragraphs where it directly supports the point you are trying to make. Any outside information used must be referenced in the essay via an in-text citation or footnote. For example with an APA-formatted essay, your parenthetical citation will include the last name of the author and year of publication. Every essay that uses research and outside information must also include a reference page where the sources are listed.

If you make reference to a work or piece of research without mentioning the author in the text of your essay, then both the author's name and year are usually placed at the end of the sentence in brackets.

Where the author's name is cited in your essay and is part of the sentence, put the author's name, followed by the year of publication, in brackets. Cormack states that 'when writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works' In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good practice to make reference to other relevant published work.

This view has been supported in the work of Cormack Where the author's name is not cited directly in the essay, both the author's name and year are usually placed at the end of the sentence, in brackets.

Making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing for a professional audience Cormack Where more than one author's work is cited in your essay Where reference is made to more than one author in a sentence, and they are referred to directly, these can be listed, Jones and Smith have both shown Where more than one authors' works are not cited directly in your essay they can be listed at the end of the sentence, putting the author's name, followed by the date of publication, separated by semi-colons and within brackets.

Jones ; Smith Where there are two authors for a particular work When there are two authors for a work, these should all be noted in your text. White and Brown in their recent research paper found Or indirectly Slater and Jones In this citation, White is the primary source, and therefore the original; Black the secondary may have taken White's ideas forward and altered the meaning slightly, if not directly quoted.

Therefore it would be prudent to try and access White's work and read the original. When citing the reference in the reference list, cite only the work that you have read; i. Where you are reproducing data from a diagram or table, or copying the entire table or diagram, in your essay, a reference should be made to the source. A reference within the text of your essay to a Table taken from a book should include the author and page Smith , p.

Where the source of the data is not the author's own, but obtained from another source, this is a second hand reference and needs to be cited thus United Nations cited in Smith , p.

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Reference Page. Every essay that uses research and outside information must also include a reference page where the sources are listed. The reference page is a separate page that comes at the end of the essay and lists your sources in alphabetical order by last name of the author.

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Watson, G. Writing a Thesis: a Guide to Long Essays and Dissertations. London: Longman. There are also software programs, for example, Endnote and Refworks that are designed to manage references.

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Advantages of Specifying References When Writing an Essay. Though references are commonly specified in good analytical essays as well as on scientific and academic researches, they can also be an important part of essays and other written documents. Listed below are some of the advantages that you can experience if you will specify your resources or references when writing an essay. The essay reference at the end of a publication is a list of books and other literary sources, sections of which the writer indicated as quoted or paraphrased in his essay. The inclusion of other authoritative sources as reference is generally required for formal essays to enhance the credibility of the writer.

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Writing a list of references. At the end of all pieces of academic writing, you need a list of materials that you have used or referred to. This usually has a heading: referencesbut may be bibliographyor works citeddepending on the conventions of the system you use. The object of your writing is for you to say something for yourself using the ideas of . Writing an essay is an unavoidable task for any high school or college student. While researching, notating and composing an essay may seem like a daunting prospect, there are simple steps one can.