A collection of numerical information is called statistics. Features of This Definition Are: SPSS is a softwear package of statistics. This class is designed for people who are just starting to use SPSS. The students in the class will have a hands-on experience using SPSS for doing statistics, graphics, and data management.
The class notes are the scripts for the class and are printed and given to the students in the class. The SPSS class notes do not contain any of the computer output. The class notes are not meant to be a SPSS textbook or a reference manual. The managers belive the quantity of lawn mowers sold depends on the price of the mower and the price of a compititors mower.
The following table lists price in 8 cities. Also test the individual regression coefficients and overall model. On the hand if we increase Heller price by 1 unit then it will decrease quantity sold by 0. R is the correlation between the observed and predicted values of dependent variable. Here R is 0. This value indicates that Note that this is an overall measure of the strength of association, and does not reflect the extent to which any particular independent variable is associated with the dependent variable.
R-Square is also called the coefficient of determination. Many analysts prefer Adjusted R 2 to avoid overestimating the impect of adding an independent varriable in the equation. Here the adjusted R 2 is 0. In multiple regrassion the t test and F test have different purposes. Here the p value is smaller than the alpha value say 0. When you want to search the Internet for an exact match of a particular name, word, or phrase, enclose it in quotation marks.
For example, typing "scientific management" would minimize the number of links that are only about science or only about management. Also, be sure to check the instructions provided by the search engine you are using for further tips. Taking Notes If you take careful notes as you conduct your research, you will wind up with accurate data as well as complete source information.
Your notes should include the following: Author's name, title, page number s , and other identifying details you will need to cite the source such as publisher and date Data: Specific facts and figures such as names, dates, and statistics ; quotations in quotation marks ; and summaries and paraphrases where exact quotes are not necessary You do not have to document your sources for information that is common knowledge, such as the fact that Frederick Taylor introduced scientific management.
However, you must document specialized knowledge, such as quotations from Taylor's testimony at government hearings about scientific management methods. Evaluating Your Sources The quality of your research data is only as good as your sources. Before you rely on data you have collected, here are some of the criteria you can use to evaluate your sources: How old is the source? Age of source is a particular concern when you are researching newer theories and issues. Still, new perspectives on older theories are published all the time.
Depending on your topic, you may want to check older sources as well as the most up-to-date sources. Is the source objective? Although no source can be totally objective, some are less biased than others. For example, information in an advertisement is considered less objective than information in a peer-review journal.
Think about whether the publication or the author might be biased because of economic, philosophical, or other influences. What are the author's credentials? Ideally, you want to use information from authors who are experts. Look for qualifications that show specialization in the topic you are researching, such as related academic degrees, professional certification, or work experience in the field.
Analyzing Your Data After you have collected all the facts, figures, and details needed for your paper, you must analyze all the information and how it fits with your statement of topic. To do this, group your raw data according to logical categories and look for meaningful patterns.
For example, if you were working with statistics about management employment in various countries, you might use ratios to compare the number of managers to the number of people in the general population.
The particular analytical method you choose will depend on your topic, your data, and how you will be using the results to support the viewpoint or answer the question in your statement of topic. At this point, you may decide that the information you now have leads you to revise your statement of topic.
For instance, you may decide to broaden the scope of your topic to include particularly important evidence you have uncovered, or you may want to change the wording of your original statement or question so it is more precise. Go ahead and make these changes before you start to write your paper. Planning and Writing the Paper Once you have analyzed the results of your research, you are ready to plan and then write your term paper.
At this stage of the process, you will have many notes and analyses that must be fit into a cohesive structure. Organizing Your Information Your first step is to sift through your research, select what is relevant to your statement of topic, and organize it into a pattern that brings order, unity, and logic to your information.
These are some of the ways you can organize your material: Use this organization pattern if you want to show a cause-and-effect relationship. This pattern is useful for tracing the sequential order of events or processes. This pattern is suitable for presenting the similarities and the differences between two or more items, people, or events.
Choose this approach when you want to explain geographic or physical dimensions related to your topic. Use this pattern when you want to discuss a problem and then examine ways of resolving it. With this pattern, you organize your information according to specific classifications or categories. Outlining Your Paper Unless your instructor prefers another method, your outline should follow the traditional format, using upper-case roman numerals for the major headings, upper-case roman letters for second-level headings, arabic numerals for third-level headings, and lower-case letters for fourth-level headings.
You can draft headings as topics words or phrases or full sentences. For example, the beginning of a topic outline on scientific management might look like this: Establish work standards 1.
Measure workers against standards As this sample outline shows, each heading covers just one idea. Writing Your Paper After you have outlined your paper, review your statement of topic again, lay out your research, and sit down to write. You need not write the sections in order.
Just put your ideas into writing first, and arrange the sections later, following the organization of your outline. Start with a heading you know well or feel comfortable with, and postpone work on more difficult headings until you are well underway. In drafting the paper, you may decide that your material should be presented in a slightly different order.
Make changes, rearrange sections, and rewrite paragraphs to strengthen and clarify where needed. And remember to insert appropriate transitional words and phrases to help the reader understand the connections and shifts between one heading and another. When you have completed your first draft, read it through again, looking for problems with logic, repetition, language, spelling, and grammar.
Then put the paper into the format specified by your instructor and, if time allows, set it aside for a day before proofreading it one last time, making any final corrections, and printing a clean copy for your instructor. Avoiding Plagiarism When you use someone else's words or ideas in your paper without acknowledging the source, you are plagiarizing.
As noted earlier, information that is clearly common knowledge need not be documented. However, you must document the source of original facts, ideas, and interpretations, and distinctive phrases that you quote in your paper. In some cases, you may choose to summarize what a particular source has to say, rather than use a direct quote. In other cases, you may prefer to paraphrase what you learn from a particular source, by changing the wording and sentence structure.
Either way, be sure to cite the original source. This section offers a brief overview of each citation style. Any reader who wants more information can turn to your list of works cited and check under that author's name for the full title and details of that source. For example, imagine your paper about managerial decision making includes this sentence: As a well-known management expert points out, "one alternative is always the alternative of doing nothing" Drucker The parenthetical notation at the end of the sentence lets readers know that the quotation is from page in the Drucker work shown in the list of works cited.
Note, too, that there is no comma separating the author and page number. As you prepare the list of works cited in your paper, you will also follow specific MLA guidelines. List all works alphabetically by author's last name or, if no author, by first word of title. Position the first entry at the left margin and indent subsequent lines in the same entry by half an inch.
So the entry for the Drucker work would read: The formatting guidelines for online sources are similar to those used for other sources. Alphabetize by author's last name or, if no author, by title of work, showing title; publisher or source; date of material if known ; date accessed; and URL.
Business Paper Writing Service One of the most challenging aspects in completing a business course is writing assignments such as business term papers. Selecting a topic can be time consuming on its own, and if you do not choose a good topic, you may run into issues when it is time to conduct research and get the paper written.
Business term paper is surely a gigantic area to write a term paper on. So select the area of study first of all to write your business term paper. This article aims to explain you all the ins and outs of writing a great business term paper.
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Step 1: Choose a Topic for your business term fast-tri-29.cf started with a general area of research, narrow down your subject and concluded a research question or statement for your paper. Step 2: How to conduct and plan your fast-tri-29.cfe your thinking process for research resources so that it may assist you in gathering data, analyzing . The art and science of collecting, analyzing, presenting and interpreting data to make more effective decision. A collection of numerical information is called business statistics.