Both pumps play important roles in fire fighting; however the choice of which type of pump must depend on the specific pumping requirements. These differences are found in the design of the pumps. The single-stage pumps of today have "one dual suction impeller designed to take water in both sides of the impeller, providing discharge flows to all discharge gates.
The operator has full range pump performance with the operation of the engine throttle. A single-stage pump can reach approximately Psi maximum pressure" "Single-Stage". In contrast, a two-stage pump uses two impellers. These operate side-by-side, on a common shaft.
This design allows the operator the choice to select either pressure or volume. This allows them to adjust the pump depending on the unique fire event. A transfer valve is incorporated into the design of a two-stage pump to facilitate this choice. The design of the two-stage pump allows it to attain higher pressures than their single-stage counterpart. In fact, many two-stage pumps can reach pressures as high as Psi, this is in contrast to the Psi that the single-stage pump maxes out at "Single-Stage".
Choosing the best pump for each situation often is based on their advantages. The single-stage pump offers a significant benefit of simplicity. This makes it a highly reliable pump. The two-stage pump is more complex, but it does achieve a higher pump pressure and gives the operator an option of volume or pressure "Single-Stage".
The use of hoses to fight fires can be traced back to B. Made from the gut of an oxen, early firefighters filled bags with water and then forced them into the hose. Firefighters would then sit or stomp on the bag and hose to force the water through.
The modern fire hose echoes back to , where fifty-foot lengths of leather were sewn together. Developed by Jan Van der Heiden and his son, later Van der Heiden would develop the first suction hose, by including a wire frame inside the hose, to keep it from collapsing. The next evolution of the fire hose came when James Sellars and Abraham Pennock, both Philadelphia firemen, used metal rivets on the seams of a leather hose, instead of stitching, allowing for higher pressures and fewer breakages.
In , the rubbe line, cotton-webbed hose was patented, allowing a foot hose to do the work of 60 men on a bucket brigade. As more and more manufacturers entered the marketplace, the variety of unique sizes became a problem. For this reason, the International Association of Fire Engineers' first convention adopted a standard size for hoses of 71U2 threads per inch. More departments were willing to make this change, thanks to the Ely Fire Hose Thread Standardizer that would convert the coupling sizes to the new standard Gilbert.
This hose is made from reinforced plastic and features rubber lining. However, mold is still a potential unpleasant side effect on these lower pressure, high volume hoses Gilbert.
There are a variety of nozzles that are utilized in firefighting. Some provide solid, heavy streams of water. Others produce curtains of spray; while still others create a fire defeating fog.
Firefighters typically have a selection of nozzles available to them, and can choose the one that is most appropriate for the amount of heat that needs to be absorbed. Rates of flow vary greatly with these nozzles. Fog-type nozzles may only use 15 gallons of water per minute. In contrast, steady, heavy stream nozzles can use more than gallons per minute.
Although straight streams can reach farthest, allowing firefighters the ability to reach and penetrate fires farther away, a fog nozzle can absorb heat more quickly. The water droplets from the fog distributes water in a greater area and can be utilized to "disperse vapors from flammable liquids, although foam is generally used to extinguish fires in flammable liquids" Gilbert. In addition to spray pattern, there are five basic nozzle types.
The solid bore nozzle is the most basic type, with a simple design and function. The single gallonage nozzle is the simplest combination or fog nozzle. These nozzles provide a predetermined flow rate that cannot be altered. Flow can only be varied by adjusting nozzle pressure. Adjustable gallonage nozzle allows the operator to select the gallonage used. Automatic nozzles, in contrast, provide a relatively constant pressure level, even with a variety of flow rates.
There is a mechanism in the nozzle that increases or decreases the flow automatically. Lastly, the multi-purpose nozzle combines solid bore and fog nozzle.
Fire services said Monday more thanInc. Topics by nbsp; Note: This page contains sample records for the topic cylinder fire test from. While these samples are representative of the content of , they are not comprehensive nor are they the most building codes.
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The fire service should be one of the best careers a person should have. Yes it is often a mystery why we running into burning buildings where other people are running out. It is a sense of bravery, determination and will. Firefighters always look forward to “slaying the dragon,” as fire is.
Fire Service The Hackensack Fire Department was established in the year , and its origins in fact date back to , when a meeting was held in the city of Hackensack with all the citizens present, in order to find an effective way to deal with the constant fires ravaging the village and surrounding areas.
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