Whichever list there is, the idea is to help the reader to find further information. For this purpose, it is customary to give the following information on books although nowadays only the first three are absolutely necessary: If the report is intended to be published in some particular series, the pattern for presenting the sources can be looked up in former publications of that series.
The Appendix can include any such subject matter related to the research which would be too extensive to be included in the text. Such are for example questionnaires, lists or pictures of the objects and large tables which summarize the results.
Sometimes it is possible to save printing costs by placing large tables or coloured pictures in the Appendix, or into a separate volume with a smaller number of prints. How to Make the Report The researcher should not feel disheartened if writing the report proves to be difficult. It always is, for several reasons. First of all, the subject matter is complicated; research is inherently hard work, drudgery to shed light on obscure matters; facts which nobody knew anything about a while ago are often highlighted in the report.
Secondly, the form of presentation is awkward: If the hypertext format can be used for the report, it can perhaps alleviate this problem.
Often, especially in the case of an obligatory thesis, the research paper is the first one of its kind for its author, and models and guidance are not always available The researcher had better start the writing by outlining the questions, the results and then the logical conclusions which combine these two on a sheet of paper.
Then he can select the most suitable order of presentation of these three. This is not necessarily the same order in which the sections will be written: It will usually be necessary to modify a research report many times.
These revisions should not be allowed to endanger the finished passages. In this task, a personal computer may be of great help. Personal computers are such powerful machines that it would be senseless to use them only as typewriters with a memory.
Modern word processing equipment has numerous tools useful for a report writer, like the following: The outline is preferably planned before writing out the text. It should present the logical structure of the project at one glance.
This can be done by writing the title for each different section of the report on a separate line, and by first sorting out these titles only. Once the disposition is correct, the writer starts to add text under each heading, in the order that is the easiest. If the researcher later finds a better sequence of the chapters, the revision can be done easily by moving whole chapters or paragraphs complete with their titles and the attached pictures and tables.
The hierarchy of headings main headings, subheadings etc. In computer aided writing, a style means primarily choosing the type and size of the font, but it can also include e.
In references to other parts of the same text, e. The word-processing program takes care of updating the page and figure numbers if the paging subsequently changes in the report. Footnotes and final remarks should also be devised with the help of a word processing program. It will then not be necessary to take care of their placing or renumbering if a new footnote is later added in between. Some word processors include a thesaurus or a synonym dictionary which can help the writer to look for a word more suited to the context, or simply to avoid tautologies.
This is especially of use for those writing in a foreign language. Tools or a program for a language check might be available, especially for proof reading, that is, correcting spelling mistakes. A program like this goes through a text and stops at every word which is not included in its dictionary. Make Up and Making Indexes In the final phase of writing the report, it advisable for the writer to lay out all the pages of the report, that is, to make up the publication.
The advantage is that the writer is best equipped to shorten, lengthen or change the text and he can thus make every page into an easily readable amalgam of text, pictures and figures.
It is usual to make a basis for the make-up, a template which contains the features common to all the pages of the publication: In these questions, almost every series of publication seems to wish to keep its own patterns.
If there is no model available, you should start the make-up by making one. If the page size of the report is A4, the text should be divided into two or three columns, otherwise it will be hard to read. Aligning the right margin slows down the reading; justifying only the left margin is better in this respect. The fonts that are the easiest to read are the types used by newspapers such as Times; one of the worst being Courier, or typewriting.
There are special publishing programs that can serve as tools for make-up. They have handy, half automatic devices such as lay-out into columns, widow and orphan line control widow and orphan lines are single lines at the top or the bottom of the page , and a possibility to link certain lines together in such a way that they will never fall into separate pages. Similarly, the placing of footnotes on convenient pages will take place automatically.
Word processing programs often have problems with pictures. Pictures produced in different ways can usually be attached to texts and they will be printed out with the text, if all goes well and you have a powerful computer. The size of the pictures should be chosen in such a way that the necessary details will be visible at the same reading distance as the text itself. The line thickness of the pictures in the final printed matter should not be less than 0.
It is easy to change the initial settings of a make up made with a computer. This is true especially for those settings which have been defined only once at the beginning of the text file, such as page size, margins and the number of columns. Similarly, if all the font definitions have been made by referring to one base font defined at the beginning of the text, only one command is necessary to enlarge all the font sizes in the report or even to change the font type of the whole publication for example from Courier to Helvetica.
It is equally easy to change anything defined in a style. A single change in the definition of the style will immediately effect all the places where it is applied. After the make-up, but before photocopying, is the right time to compile the table of contents, the indexes of names etc. As we noticed earlier, it is possible to have a table of contents compiled automatically. The index will also be made automatically by the word processing program, provided the writer has marked those words of the text that shall be included in the index.
All these measures are actually so simple that they can be taken every time a research report is printed out as a preliminary draft. Printing The normal, easiest and least error-prone method of printing is to do it with the computer's dedicated printer. However, if a high quality professional printing is desired, text has to be set in a printing house.
The writer usually sends the text to the composing room on a diskette after he and the setters have agreed on the word processing program. It is advisable to observe the following guidelines as to the manuscript due to be printed: You should never divide words on two lines; instead, you may give hyphenation hints with a special code. It is usually best to write with hyphenation turned off. The setter then takes care of hyphenation.
You should put no spaces at the beginnings of paragraphs; if they are wanted to highlight the beginning of chapters, it is easiest to do them during the make-up. It is usually a good idea to set the left margin to zero in the manuscript phase. There should be no extra spaces between the words.
Sometimes you will get a lot of unwanted spaces if the right side alignment is switched on in your word processor. So it is better to write without a right side alignment. You should check the special signs in proof reading. Indentation, underlining, italics, big header fonts and other special effects should be added in the composing room; there should be an agreement on how they are to be marked in the manuscript.
In the present deluge of information, the public appreciates the possibility of reading a report selectively, starting at the cardinal points, skipping some topics and continuing into others that interest. For a report on paper, such a procedure is made possible by gradually advancing into more and more detailed information: The student can continue on this "ladder of profundity" as deep down as the matter has interest to him or her.
Hypertext provides today essentially improved prospects for constructing "ladders of profundity" because it can create many-dimensional links not only downward towards the details like the contents page of a book, but in any direction and even to other than written material.
Hyperlinks are advantageous already in the internal framework of one single research project, but the outlook becomes infinitely wider when we consider the prospects of building external links to relevant information outside of the original project. They could help in creating a general vista for an entire field of science where it has until now been obstructed by the very abundance of research reports.
Publicity After the report is printed, the researcher has still something to do: Start by brainstorming ideas for the essay. Then, outline and write the essay using sensory detail and strong description. Always polish your essay and proofread it so it is at its best.
Essays do not have to be about something real. The important part is that you are passionate and knowledgeable about the subject. A descriptive essay can be about fictional people, places, or things. For example, you can write about a school in a TV show, the character you hate in a video game, or a magic wand in a book. Read on for another quiz question. That may be the message behind a metaphor, but it is not a metaphor.
This is a simile because it uses "like" or "as" for the comparison. Metaphors do not use these words. Metaphors are comparisons that do not use the words "like" or "as. The person reading your essay is only trying to make your writing stronger. As a reader, they may see things you missed or places that you could improve. This feedback will help your essay be successful when it is read by its intended audience.
You've worked hard on this essay and constructive criticism should never be mean. It should provide appropriate feedback so that you can create an even better essay. While it was very nice of them to read your essay, that doesn't mean you have to read theirs. They may not have an essay for you to read anyway! The reason for accepting constructive criticism goes deeper than that. Click on another answer to find the right one Choose a person to describe. One option for a topic is to describe a person that you know well in your life.
This could be a family member like your mother or your father. It could also be a best friend, a coworker, or a mentor. Choose a person that you have a lot to write about so you have enough material for the essay. You could write about a character on your favorite TV show or video game. Pick a place or object to describe.
Another option is to focus on a specific place or object that you have strong feelings about. This could be a place like your high school, your workplace, or your childhood home. You could also write about an important family heirloom or a gift from a friend.
Select an emotion to describe. Some descriptive essays are about an emotion that you connect to or relate to. You may choose a strong emotion like anger, loss, desire, or rage. You could then try to describe the emotion using your own experiences with it. These emotions can make for powerful descriptive essays. Make a list of sensory details about the topic.
Once you have chosen your topic, draw five columns on a piece of paper or a word document on your computer. You can then use these notes in your essay. Part 1 Quiz True or False: Essays have to be about real things, events, or people. Outline the essay in sections. Organize the essay by creating a brief outline.
Do this in sections: The standard is to have a five paragraph essay, one paragraph for introduction, three paragraphs for body, and one for conclusion. But you can also try having sections instead, allowing you to have as many paragraphs as you want for the body section of the essay. Create a thesis statement. A thesis statement is the key idea or theme for the essay. It states the purpose of the essay and acts as a guide for the rest of the essay. The thesis statement should appear in your introduction and be restated in your conclusion.
Write a strong introduction. The introduction to the descriptive essay should set the scene and introduce the reader to the subject. Use the list of sensory details to describe the subject. Then, end the introduction with your thesis statement. She is a fierce protector and a mysterious woman to my sisters and I. Describe the topic with vivid adjectives. Use adjectives that express emotion. Be as specific as you can.
Use metaphors and similes. Metaphors are when you compare one thing to another. Use metaphors to show the reader what you think about the topic, rather than simply tell the reader how you feel. Discuss your emotions and thoughts about the topic.
Do not be afraid to express your emotions in your essay. Do you feel joy, sadness, angry, or disgust with the subject? How do you respond emotionally to the subject? Wrap up the essay with a strong conclusion. Your conclusion should tie all the thoughts in your essay together. Restate your thesis statement in the conclusion and end with a strong final sentence. Do not add anything new to your essay in the conclusion. Simply evaluate your thoughts in the essay and wrap things up with a short, final statement.
Part 2 Quiz Which of the following is a metaphor? My mom sacrificed a lot for us. My mother is like a fierce warrior in battle. My mother is a workhorse. Read the essay out loud. Once you have completed a draft of the essay, read it aloud to yourself. Listen for any awkward or unclear sentences.
Circle these sentences so you can revise them later. Ask them to let you know if there are any unclear or vague sentences in the essay.
Descriptive Report Writing. Showing top 8 worksheets in the category - Descriptive Report Writing.
Reporting Descriptive (Summary) Statistics Means: Always report the mean (average value) along with a measure of variablility (standard deviation(s) or .
Report Writing- First Grade Animal Report gonzalez Find this Pin and more on Descriptive report by Sue Dauncey. Terrific post with lots of examples on doing zoo animal reports in first grade. handout and anchor charts included. The writer of a descriptive report cannot count on that the public at once understands the value of the study, on the contrary it can happen that the researcher is presenting to the public something that the public does not yet know that it is lacking.
In the (academic) IELTS assessment, the first writing task (TASK ONE) is to produce a descriptive report. As you are required to complete two tasks within 60 minutes, it is best not to spend more than 25 minutes on the first task. Narrative ¥ Descriptive ¥ Expository ¥ Persuasive: The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus A book review is descriptive report writing a descriptive and critical/evaluative account of a book.