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We specialize in delivering outstanding academic reports on all possible subjects and are proud of exceptional quality of writing a term paper or dissertation. We remind customers about it daily! In later times paper constituted one of the 'Four Treasures of the Scholar's Studio,' alongside the brush, the ink, and the inkstone.

After its origin in central China , the production and use of paper spread steadily. It is clear that paper was used at Dunhuang by AD , in Loulan in the modern-day province of Xinjiang by , and in Turpan by Paper was concurrently introduced in Japan sometime between the years and Paper spread to Vietnam in the 3rd century. Paper spread to Korea in the 4th century. Paper spread to Japan in the 5th century.

Paper spread to India in the 7th century. After the defeat of the Chinese in the Battle of Talas in present day Kyrgyzstan , the invention spread to the Middle East. The legend goes, [28] the secret of papermaking was obtained from two Chinese prisoners from the Battle of Talas, which led to the first paper mill in the Islamic world being founded in Samarkand in Sogdia modern-day Uzbekistan.

There was a tradition that Muslims would release their prisoners if they could teach ten Muslims any valuable knowledge. The laborious process of paper making was refined and machinery was designed for bulk manufacturing of paper. Production began in Baghdad , where a method was invented to make a thicker sheet of paper, which helped transform papermaking from an art into a major industry.

The Muslims also introduced the use of trip hammers human- or animal-powered in the production of paper, replacing the traditional Chinese mortar and pestle method. In turn, the trip hammer method was later employed by the Chinese.

By the 9th century, Muslims were using paper regularly, although for important works like copies of the revered Qur'an , vellum was still preferred. As paper was less reactive to humidity, the heavy boards were not needed. By the 12th century in Marrakech in Morocco a street was named "Kutubiyyin" or book sellers which contained more than bookshops.

In a Persian traveler visiting markets in Cairo noted that vegetables, spices and hardware were wrapped in paper for the customers after they were sold. Egypt continued with the thicker paper, while Iran became the center of the thinner papers.

Papermaking was diffused across the Islamic world, from where it was diffused further west into Europe. The oldest known paper document in the West is the Mozarab Missal of Silos from the 11th century, probably using paper made in the Islamic part of the Iberian Peninsula.

They used hemp and linen rags as a source of fiber. It is clear that France had a paper mill by , and by mills were established in Fabriano , Italy and in Treviso and other northern Italian towns by Papermaking then spread further northwards, with evidence of paper being made in Troyes , France by , in Holland sometime around —, in Mainz , Germany in , and in Nuremberg by in a mill set up by Ulman Stromer.

There was a paper mill in Switzerland by and the first mill in England was set up by John Tate in near Stevenage in Hertfordshire , [43] but the first commercially successful paper mill in Britain did not occur before when John Spilman set up a mill near Dartford in Kent.

Arab prisoners who settled in a town called Borgo Saraceno in the Italian Province of Ferrara introduced Fabriano artisans in the Province of Ancona [ clarification needed ] the technique of making paper by hand. At the time they were renowned for their wool-weaving and manufacture of cloth.

Fabriano papermakers considered the process of making paper by hand an art form and were able to refine the process to successfully compete with parchment which was the primary medium for writing at the time. They developed the application of stamping hammers to reduce rags to pulp for making paper, sizing paper by means of animal glue , and creating watermarks in the paper during its forming process.

The Fabriano used glue obtained by boiling scrolls or scraps of animal skin to size the paper; it is suggested that this technique was recommended by the local tanneries. The introduction of the first European watermarks in Fabriano was linked to applying metal wires on a cover laid against the mould which was used for forming the paper. They adapted the waterwheels from the fuller's mills to drive a series of three wooden hammers per trough.

The hammers were raised by their heads by cams fixed to a waterwheel's axle made from a large tree trunk. In the Americas, archaeological evidence indicates that a similar bark-paper writing material was used by the Mayans no later than the 5th century AD. The paper is created by boiling and pounding the inner bark of trees, until the material becomes suitable for art and writing. These materials made from pounded reeds and bark are technically not true paper , which is made from pulp, rags, and fibers of plants and cellulose.

European papermaking spread to the Americas first in Mexico by and then in Philadelphia by The use of human and animal powered mills was known to Chinese and Muslim papermakers. However, evidence for water-powered paper mills is elusive among both prior to the 11th century. Donald Hill has identified a possible reference to a water-powered paper mill in Samarkand , in the 11th-century work of the Persian scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni , but concludes that the passage is "too brief to enable us to say with certainty" that it refers to a water-powered paper mill.

Clear evidence of a water-powered paper mill dates to in the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon. The first paper mill north of the Alps was established in Nuremberg by Ulman Stromer in ; it is later depicted in the lavishly illustrated Nuremberg Chronicle.

Before the industrialisation of the paper production the most common fibre source was recycled fibres from used textiles, called rags. The rags were from hemp , linen and cotton. It was not until the introduction of wood pulp in that paper production was not dependent on recycled materials from ragpickers. Although cheaper than vellum, paper remained expensive, at least in book-sized quantities, through the centuries, until the advent of steam-driven paper making machines in the 19th century, which could make paper with fibres from wood pulp.

Although older machines predated it, the Fourdrinier papermaking machine became the basis for most modern papermaking. Nicholas Louis Robert of Essonnes , France , was granted a patent for a continuous paper making machine in At the time he was working for Leger Didot with whom he quarrelled over the ownership of the invention. Didot sent his brother-in-law, John Gamble, to meet Sealy and Henry Fourdrinier , stationers of London , who agreed to finance the project.

Gamble was granted British patent on 20 October With the help particularly of Bryan Donkin , a skilled and ingenious mechanic, an improved version of the Robert original was installed at Frogmore Paper Mill , Hertfordshire , in , followed by another in A third machine was installed at the Fourdriniers' own mill at Two Waters.

The Fourdriniers also bought a mill at St Neots intending to install two machines there and the process and machines continued to develop. However, experiments with wood showed no real results in the late 18th century and at the start of the 19th century.

By , Matthias Koops in London, England further investigated the idea of using wood to make paper, and in he wrote and published a book titled Historical account of the substances which have been used to describe events, and to convey ideas, from the earliest date, to the invention of paper.

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Our writing team is an officially registered organization, that supply writing and proofreading services for a long period of time, we do help writing a paper. All clients, who ask for writing help have the opportunity to receive a professionally written fast-tri-29.cf main features of the best work are. There are an infinite number of ways to write an essay because any form of writing is a means of self-expression. Your essay will be unique because you are unique: it’s up to you to ensure that it’s uniquely good, not uniquely mediocre.

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Sep 08,  · College essay writing service Question description What is labor? Why were unions and labor so important in the late ’s? Were they a force for good or evil and are they still needed now? Why or why not? Pages – Double spaced Typed with Footnotes. The essay is opinion based so there is no [ ]. help you to avoid the most common problems of style and substance that students encounter in writing history papers. Please note that this booklet cannot cover everything you need to know about historical writing and research. Get a good general stylebook and keep it by your side as you write.