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Since ethical egoism states that the best way to promote the welfare of others is by promoting your own self-interest, they kind of go hand in hand. But they are different since psychological egoism focus only on self-fulfillment and self-interest. The term ego means self. A body without an ego is just empty, without a soul. To have a good mental health involves being an integrated and harmonized human being. This anticipates that you are an egoist. Without good mental health and personal harmony one does not make the right choices for either yourself or the welfare of other people around you.

The word altruism was first used by the French philosopher, Auguste Comte. Every human beings moral purpose is to serve others well-being on the expense of your own values. Altruism considers personal interest as something negative.

Self-interest is per definition unmoral. Guilt is something you experience when something is in conflict with your own moral belief. Rational guilt is to feel guilt when one actually harms others. That type of guilt is good, because it aids learning to show consideration when it comes to others and their feelings.

But irrational guilt, feeling guilty when you have not done anything wrong, is never positive. By reflecting about altruism, the feeling that altruism can create guilt in times when one does not do what other people want becomes apparent. That could make it very hard to say no, which lead to situations of victimization and being taken advantage of. The concept of a self-defense will always be egoistic, and involves the sub consciousness sense what is right or wrong.

It makes you self-destructive to feel irrational guilt all the time. One has no emotional support for your own actions. It might seem logical that collectivism and altruism are important values to collaborate socially.

This is completely wrong. Social competence is a quality of the individual. To work socially is to work as an individual in relation to other people, and to work as an individual one needs to be an egoist.

Altruistic behavior makes it easier for other people to manipulate feelings and actions. Confidence anticipates that one can trust their own sub-consciousness. Insecurity is driven by a lack of support from the sub-conscious. It is also hard to work socially, if one is sensitive to criticism, and feel irrational guilt. Altruism makes one a target of outside control, which makes a self-controlled life problematic.

In the state of nature, every man has a right to everything as long as he is able to protect it. If everyone is also acting in self-interest, conflicts will inevitably arise when multiple people desire the same object, be it power, food, mate, etc. Without an outside power to prove and punish wrongdoings, people will likely choose violence to attain or protect desires.

The state of nature is a state of war of all against all, regardless of the validity of psychological egoism. Without a power capable of creating laws and enforcing "just" punishment, people who desire some object in another's possession will seek to "kill, subdue, supplant, or repel" the person.

Other people will not be able to secure their livelihood or possessions unless they "kill, subdue, supplant, or repel" the people who want what they have.

The reason the state of nature leads to such war is not psychological egoism but the absence of laws and protection. Even if psychological egoism is false, enough individuals will still act in self-interest and, in the absence of a moral code, will engage in behavior detrimental to others and ultimately lead to conflict and war. Psychological egoism intensifies the state of war of all against all but is not necessary.

A common criticism of the theory of psychological egoism is the presence of seemingly altruistic acts, that is, people acting in a manner that does not appear to benefit them. A common example is the soldier that jumps onto a grenade to save the lives of his comrades. Does it really benefit the soldier to sacrifice his life for his comrades?

Surely sacrificing himself does not help the soldier in terms of self-preservation. This is when a proponent of psychological egoism would argue that even though the soldier's action seems altruistic in nature, the act is still ultimately motivated by self-interest, and that the soldier sacrificed himself because it gave him some sort of good feeling.

It is impossible to prove, though, that the soldier does in fact get a good feeling from sacrificing himself because there is no way to measure such a feeling. Some people feel the soldier example or any other act of altruism provides a counterexample to psychological egoism, and since it is a theory on human nature, even one counterexample disproves the theory.

I can see how, at first glance, the example of the soldier seems to disprove psychological egoism. The soldier does not receive any kind of permanent reward nor does he protect his desire for self-preservation. And even though you cannot measure feelings, does the soldier not have them? When I think of "some good to himself," I cannot help but wonder what is meant by some good.


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The psychological egoism opponents hence state that people act not only for their self-interest but also may contain the interest in others' welfare. Apart from that, the argument against psychological egoism also states that human motives are oversimplified according to the psychological egoism.

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Psychological egoism is the theory that voluntary actions are always motivated by a reward to oneself, whether directly or indirectly. Some people immediately object to the theory because there are plenty of cases where people help others when there seems to 4/4(1).

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Psychological and Ethical Egoism Essay Words 8 Pages Egoism is a teleological theory of ethics that sets the ultimate criterion of morality in some nonmoral value (i.e. happiness or welfare) that results from acts (Pojman ). Psychological vs Ethical Egoism Essay Words | 5 Pages. Psychological Egoism and Ethical Egoism: A Comparison Abstract There is a certain innate desire to help others, just as others will feel that same fulfillment for returning that aid.

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Essay: Psychological egoism and ethical egoism I have always looked at myself as an unselfish person with a good sense of empathy towards my friends and other people. I have always thought about egoism as something solely negative. Psychological egoism, although on first glance, may seem logical; it is flawed in its own arguments. Ethical egoism is the theory that the promotion of one’s own good is in accordance with morality.