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A Scientific Review
Three Types of Resources

Primary sources are first-hand accounts or individual representations and creative works. They are created by those who have directly witnessed what they are describing, and bring us as close to the original event or thought as possible without being filtered, influenced or analyzed through interpretation.

They tend to be original documents that don't usually describe or analyze work by others. Primary sources may be published or unpublished works. Use primary sources when you want to make claims or criticisms, as evidence for theories, or to gain timely perspectives on a topic.

Interview transcripts of mentally ill patients; raw, analyzed population data; newspaper articles about events. Analyzed results from biological study; analyzed field data collected by environmental org; original experiments or research. Secondary sources build off of primary sources with more extensive and in-depth analyses.

They summarize, evaluate, and analytically interpret primary material, often by offering a personal perspective. While these are useful to check what other experts in the field have to say, they are not evidence. It is one step removed from the original or primary source. Because secondary sources are published works, they will list their sources of information which can be used to located additional information for your research.

Use secondary sources to see what others have discussed. They can be a good place to gather background information on a topic. You may also want to observe them in a school setting, noting certain behaviors, dress, or mannerisms, depending on your focus. You may also want to review other studies on adolescent girls to see how the studies were conducted and the data interpreted. You may even design a survey to collect firsthand information from the girls themselves or from their teachers.

Your research question and the kind of research you do will guide the types of resources you will need to complete your research. Students now have easy access to a wider range of information than ever before. Conducting research today requires that you understand how to locate resources—in libraries and frequently online—and that you have the skill and motivation to work with librarians and library technology.

Identifying and managing those resources within your research project is as important as integrating them into your own words and your research writing voice. Primary sources include firsthand accounts, raw data, and other original material.

The term is also sometimes translated as research fellow , research associate , etc. Academic publishing is a system that is necessary for academic scholars to peer review the work and make it available for a wider audience. The system varies widely by field and is also always changing, if often slowly. Most academic work is published in journal article or book form. There is also a large body of research that exists in either a thesis or dissertation form.

These forms of research can be found in databases explicitly for theses and dissertations. In publishing, STM publishing is an abbreviation for academic publications in science, technology, and medicine. Most established academic fields have their own scientific journals and other outlets for publication, though many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields.

The kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions of knowledge or research vary greatly between fields, from the print to the electronic format. A study suggests that researchers should not give great consideration to findings that are not replicated frequently. Since about the early s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common. Presently, a major trend, particularly with respect to scholarly journals, is open access.

Most funding for scientific research comes from three major sources: These are managed primarily through universities and in some cases through military contractors. Many senior researchers such as group leaders spend a significant amount of their time applying for grants for research funds.

These grants are necessary not only for researchers to carry out their research but also as a source of merit. The Social Psychology Network provides a comprehensive list of U. Government and private foundation funding sources. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the search for knowledge.

For other uses, see Research disambiguation. For other uses, see Researcher disambiguation. For Wikipedia's policy against directly including in articles the results of editor-conducted research, see Wikipedia: Original research redirects here. For the Wikipedia policy, see Wikipedia: This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message.

This article needs to be updated. This subsection's claims are potentially outdated in the "digital age" given that near-total penetration of Web access among scholars worldwide enables any scholar[s] to submit papers to any journal anywhere. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.

January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Academic ranks , Academics , and Scientists. Retrieved on 27 October from [1]. Retrieved 20 May Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research 3rd ed. Original research is considered a primary source". Carpenter Library, University of North Florida. Archived from the original on 9 July Retrieved 9 August Archived from the original on 11 January Occupational Outlook Handbook, edition. Research versus Teaching" PDF.

A Guide to Historical Method. On measuring artistic research output" PDF. Retrieved 14 August Journal for Artistic Research. Bern University of the Arts. What is artistic research? What is at stake — Qu'est ce que l'enjeu? Arts, Research, Innovation and Society.

Gerald Bast, Elias G. A Glossary for Social Practice: Perspectives on Artistic Research and Academia Chapter Publishing Art in Academia, Leiden: Methods Meets Art 2nd ed. Research Methods Knowledge Base. Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research 3rd. Upper Saddle River, NJ: A Playbook for Research Methods: Integrating Conceptual Frameworks and Project Management.

Scientific method in practice. The handbook of scholarly writing and publishing. Hilleman dies; created vaccines". International Journal of Qualitative Methods. Upper Saddle River, NJ. A Time-Saving Guide, p. Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences.

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Secondary sources are those that describe or analyze primary sources, including: reference materials – dictionaries, encyclopedias, textbooks, and books and articles that interpret, review, or sythesize original research/fieldwork.

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Video: Academic Sources: Definition & Examples Find out what academic sources are and what to look for if you're required to use them for research papers and essays. Complete the lesson, and take. TERTIARY SOURCES DEFINED. Tertiary Sources are distillations and collections of primary and secondary sources. The information is compiled and digested into factual representation, so that it does not obviously reflect points of view, critiques or persuasions. Tertiary sources are typically the last to be published in the information .

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In the Sciences, primary sources are documents that provide full description of the original research. For example, a primary source would be a journal article where scientists describe their research on the human immune system. The strict definition of scientific research (i.e. the scientific method) is performing a methodical study in order to prove or disprove a hypothesis, or answer a specific question. But to arrive at that hypothesis takes some understanding of what .